I wondered what the next step in the ongoing war between Western content and Chinese censorship might be. Now we have our answer.
"Git" is a source code repository system which allows programmers around the world to collaborate on writing code: you can get a copy of a software project's source code onto your machine, play around with it to make changes, then send those changes back to Git for others to pick up. Github is a public website (for want of a more pedantic term) which provides a repository for all sorts of software and similar projects. The projects don't actually have to be source code: anything which looks like plain text would be fine. You could use Github to collaborate on writing a book, for instance, as long as you used mostly text for the chapters and not e.g. Microsoft Word's binary format that makes it hard for changes to be applied in sequence.
Two projects on Git are "greatfire" and "cn-nytimes" which are, respectively, a mirror for the Greatfire.org website focused on the Great Firewall of China, and a Chinese translation of the New York Times stories. These are, obviously, not something to which the Chinese government wants its citizenry to have unfettered access. However, Github has many other non-controversial software projects on it, and is actually very useful to many software developers in China. What to do?
Last week a massive Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack hit Github:
The attack began around 2AM UTC on Thursday, March 26, and involves a wide combination of attack vectors. These include every vector we've seen in previous attacks as well as some sophisticated new techniques that use the web browsers of unsuspecting, uninvolved people to flood github.com with high levels of traffic. Based on reports we've received, we believe the intent of this attack is to convince us to remove a specific class of content. [my italics]Blocking Github at the Great Firewall - which is very easy to do - was presumably regarded as undesirable because of its impact on Chinese software businesses. So an attractive alternative was to present the Github team with a clear message that until they discontinued hosting these projects they would continue to be overwhelmed with traffic.
If this attack were just a regular DDoS by compromised PCs around the world it would be relatively trivial to stop: just block the Internet addresses (IPs) of the compromised PCs until traffic returns to normal levels. But this attack is much more clever. It intercepts legitimate requests from worldwide web browsers for a particular file hosted on China's Baidu search engine, and modifies the request to include code that commands repeated requests for pages from the two controversial projects on Github. There's a good analysis from NetreseC:
In short, this is how this Man-on-the-Side attack is carried out:
1. An innocent user is browsing the internet from outside China.
The interesting question is: where is this fake response happening? We're fairly sure that it's not at Baidu themselves, for reasons you can read in the above links. Now Errata Security has done a nice bit of analysis that points the finger at the Great Firewall implementation in ISP China Unicom:
By looking at the IP addresses in the traceroute, we can conclusive prove that the man-in-the-middle device is located on the backbone of China Unicom, a major service provider in China.That existing Great Firewall implementors have added this new attack functionality fits with Occam's Razor. It's technically possible for China Unicom infrastructure to have been compromised by patriotically-minded independent hackers in China, but given the alternative that China Unicom have been leant on by the Chinese government to make this change, I know what I'd bet my money on.
This is also a major shift in Great Firewall operations: this is the first major case I'm aware of that has them focused on inbound traffic from non-Chinese citizens.
Github look like they've effectively blocked the attack, after a mad few days of scrambling, and kudos to them. Now we have to decide what the appropriate response is. It seems that any non-encrypted query to a China-hosted website would be potential fair game for this kind of attack. Even encrypted (https) requests could be compromised, but that would be a huge red arrow showing that the company owning the original destination (Baidu in this case) had been compromised by the attacker: this would make it 90%+ probable that the attacker had State-level influence.
If this kind of attack persists, any USA- or Europe-focused marketing effort by Chinese-hosted companies is going to be thoroughly torpedoed by the reasonable expectation that web traffic is going to be hijacked for government purposes. I wonder whether the Chinese government has just cut off its economic nose to spite its political face.